The pathologies of the distal portion of the locomotor system are the most frequent cause of medical care in horses. Among them we have some more important and more frequent ones, like the navicular syndrome, common in athletes horses, laminite, drill and cracks.
Syndrome of the navicular boné:
It is a pathology that mainly affects the thoracic limbs, and is one of the most common causes of intermittent claudication in horses.
Factors such as defective conformation, hull imbalances, improper or irregular braking and exercises on hard surfaces can cause or aggravate this condition.
This syndrome is characterized by chronic limb claudication associated with pain arising from changes in the navicular bone and related structures, including collateral ligaments of the navicular bone, unequal ligament of the distal sesamoid, navicular bursa, and the deep digital flexor tendon. The disease is characterized by degenerative changes in the structure, composition and mechanical function of the cartilage, subchondral bone and soft tissues of the podotroclear apparatus.
The diagnosis of this pathology can not always be done radiographically, requiring specialized means of diagnostic imaging, such as ultrasound.
Treatment usually involves periods of rest, hoof care and placement of corrective shoes, medications that improve blood flow, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the use of specific medications for the treatment of arthritis.
Laminitis is inflammation of the hull laminae, which undergo necrosis commonly resulting in incapacitating claudication, and in more severe cases, the displacement of the distal phalanx within the shell capsule may occur.
Generally this pathology occurs as a sequela of other clinical factors such as diseases associated with sepsis or endotoxemia; excessive weight overload on one limb resulting from contralateral limb injury; cushing's disease, which is an endocrine disease that affects the pituitary gland of horses and metabolic syndrome.
There are three well-defined stages of laminitis:
Developmental stage: period in which the animal has one of the clinical factors mentioned above and offers a risk of laminitis, and can be prevented by means of cold water showers and ice packs.
Acute phase: when the animal's digit begins to display the clinical signs. At this stage measures are taken that relieve pain and do not allow the pathology to evolve into the chronic phase. Measures include transferring the horse to a soft ground, analgesics and anti-inflammatories can be used, and cold water showers are used as a decongestant, improving limb circulation.
Chronic phase: in this phase, the displacement of the distal phalanx occurs, which, due to the constant pressure of the distal phalanx displaced on the sole, causes sole bruising or bruising.
Cracks are injuries to the walls of the hull, caused mainly by traumatisms, represent a failure anywhere on the hull wall. These may be superficial, when they involve the horny tissue, or deep if the fissure is thick and wraps the sensitive blade below. Cracks that surround the hull's sensitive blades are more severe, the affected horses usually limp and may have post-exercise bleeding.
There are procedures that prevent the crack from reaching the crown of the hull and causing permanent deformation.
In these cases infections are common, since the hull wall is a protection structure against pathogenic microorganisms and the fissure becomes a "port of entry" with high risk of contamination.
Drills are sub-solear abscesses that, unlike the others, are caused by some pathogen. Anaerobiosis, a condition where there is a lack of oxygen, is one of the main factors that makes the hull a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic microorganisms.
The cleaning of the sole can be done to remove the accumulation of organic matter, such as feces, and soil that remain in the sole and create this condition of anaerobiosis, preventing the formation of the abscess. Animals in a stable should have a clean hull daily, as they have a greater pre-disposition to develop this condition, since in the bays their movement is limited, therefore the accumulation of dirt will be greater and the contact with organic matter as well.
The treatment can be done by draining the abscess from a hole in the sole, usually, or you can make compress with warm water and ointments that increase blood circulation, so that the abscess will
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